Bahasa Indonesia

CONTOH PENULISAN KUTIPAN

1. Sukirjan (2000:64) menyatakan, “Istilah narkoba merupakan singkatan dari narkotika, psikotropika, dan bahan berbahaya lainnya Adapun narkotika berarti obat bius, yang dalam bahasa Yunani narcotics artinya menidurkan atau membiuskan”.

2.             Dalam artikelnya yang berjudul High School Polydrug Users andAbusers dituliskan  batasan remaja sebagai berikut:

Remaja adalah suatu periode dalam rentang hidup ketika individu mengalami transisi pada sebagian besar aspek, dari hal-hal yang secara khas dianggap penting bagi anak-anak menuju hal-hal yang secara khas dianggap penting bagi orang dewasa. Dari aspek perkembangan kognitif, ia berada pada tahap formal operational, yakni  telah mampu berpikir secara abstrak dan hipotesis, sedang pada masa sebelumnya (masa anak) berada pada tahap concrete operational, yakni belum mampu berpikir abstrak. Karena itu, para remaja lebih tertarik pada aktivitas yang melibatkan pikiran. Tingkah laku yang mudah diamati sebagai akibat dari transisi kognitif antara lain rasa ingin tahunya besar dan suka melanggar aturan. Dari aspek perkembangan status sosial, remaja menuntut agar lingkungannya tidak memperlakukannya sebagai anak-anak lagi sehingga mendorongnya melakukan tindakan-tindakan yang biasa dilakukan orang dewasa, seperti merokok (Wright, 2005:55).

 

3.            Penelitian Sullivan (1986) melaporkan bahwa kaum remaja dengan konsep diri yang negatif, yaitu individu yang tidak menghargai citra diri mereka dan berupaya mengubahnya, lebih bersedia memakai obat-obatan terlarang dengan harapan dapat meningkatkan citra dirinya. Secara logis kaitan antara konsep diri dengan penyalahgunaan narkoba pada remaja dapat dijelaskan bahwa remaja pengguna narkoba memandang dirinya sendiri sebagai seorang yang jantan, lebih jagoan, dan memiliki kehebatan.

 

PENULISAN SUMBER KUTIPAN YANG DITEMPATKAN DALAM KURUNG

 

  1. 1.    O’Neill (2000:16) menyatakan,  ”Iklan sosial  adalah wacana persuasif yang bertujuan memengaruhi orang-orang dalam bentuk himbauan dan tidak bersifat komersial.”

 

  1. 2.     Shutterstock, peneliti dari lembaga DARE (Drug Abuse Resistance Education), menemukan bahwa slogan “Just Say No” yang dipopulerkan Nancy Reagan tahun 1991 tidak efektif dalam upaya penurunan konsumsi narkoba. karena dalam pandangan masyarakat slogan itu tidak memberi informasi apa-apa (Dalam http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/edu.pdf)

 

  1. 3.    Bimbim berujar, “Biaya untuk rehabilitasi bagi pecandu narkoba sangatlah mahal,”sambil geleng-geleng,  “pokoknya lebih mahal dari biaya kuliah di kedokteran (Kompas,  20 November 2003:8).”

 

  1. 4.    Menurut data di Polresta Surakarta, sepanjang tahun 2002 ada 175 kasus penyalahgunaan narkoba dengan 199 tersangka, sedang tahun sebelumnya ada 158 kasus dengan 192 tersangka (Kompas, 25 Februari 2003:9).

 

  1. 5.    Des Jarlais dan Friedman (dalam Sorensen dan Lodon, 1998:96) menegaskan, ”Pengubahan imej diri dengan menggunakan obat-obatan pada remaja dapat terjadi karena mereka dalam kondisi kebingungan dan kurang informasi tentang akibat yang akan dideritanya.”

 

  1. 6.    Temuan tersebut menguatkan hasil penelitian Cameron, Lee, Webster & Munro, yakni iklan layanan masyarakat tentang antinarkoba  lebih diperhatikan kalau diberikan resiko pelang-garannya (dalam O’Neill, 2000:12) 

 

CATATAN KAKI

1)              Anita E Woolfolk & Lorraine Nicolich,. (1984). Educational Psychology for Teachers. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc, hal 24.

 

2)              Ibid

 

3)              Ibid, hal. 30 et.seq

 

4)              Hogart Swisher. (1986). ‘Behavior Intension as an Indicator of Drug and Alcohol Use’. Journal of Drugs Education, 15 (3), hal 52.

 

5)              Subagyo Partodirjo. (2006). Kenali Narkoba dan Musuhi Penyalah-gunaannya. Jakarta: Esensi, hal 2.

 

6)              Ibid.

 

7)              Ibid. hal.210

 

8)              Woolfolk & Nicolich, op.cit. hal. 40.

 

9)              Swisher, loc.cit. hal. 7

 

10)        Ibid.

 

11)        Woolfolk & Nicolich, loc.cit

 

Contoh Kutipan dengan CATATAN AKHIR

1. Potts H, Gillies P, Herbert M. Adolescent smoking and opinion of cigarette advertisements. Health Educ Res. 1986;1:195–201.[Abstract/Free Full Text]

2. Goldstein AO, Fisher PM, Richards JW, Creten BA. Relationship between high school student smoking and recognition of cigarette advertisements. J Pediatr. 1987; 110:488–491.[CrossRef][ISI][Medline]

3. Aitken PP, Eadin DR. Reinforcing effects of cigarette advertising on under-age smoking. Br J Addict. 1990;85:399–412.[CrossRef][ISI][Medline]

4. Botvin EM, Botvin GJ, Michela JL, et al. Adolescent smoking behavior and the recognition of cigarette advertisements. J Appl Soc Psychol. 1991;21:919–932.[CrossRef][ISI]

5. Klitzner M, Gruenewald PJ, Bamberger E. Cigarette advertising and adolescent experimentation with smoking. Br J Addict. 1991;86:287–298.[CrossRef][ISI][Medline]

6. Unger JB, Johnson CA, Rohrbach L. Recognition and liking of tobacco and alcohol advertisements among adolescents: relationships with susceptibility to substance use. Prev Med. 1995;24:461–466.[CrossRef][ISI][Medline]

7. Evans N, Farkas A, Gilpin E, Berry C, Pierce JP. Influence of tobacco marketing and exposure to smokers on adolescent susceptibility to smoking. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1995;87:1538–1545.[Abstract/Free Full Text]

8. Altman DB, Levine DW, Coeytaux R, Slade J, Jaffe R. Tobacco promotion and susceptibility to tobacco use among adolescents aged 12 through 17 years in a nationally representative sample. Am J Public Health. 1996;86:1590–1593.[Abstract/Free Full Text]

9. Schooler C, Feighery E, Flora JA. Seventh graders’ self-reported exposure to cigarette marketing and its relationship to their smoking behavior. Am J Public Health. 1996;86:1216–1221.[Abstract/Free Full Text]

10. Gilpin EA, Pierce JP, Rosbrook B. Are adolescents receptive to current sales promotion practices of the tobacco industry? Prev Med. 1997;26:14–21.[CrossRef][ISI][Medline]

11. Feighery EC, Borzekowski DLG, Schooler C, Flora J. Seeing, wanting, owning: the relationship between receptivity to tobacco marketing and smoking susceptibility in young people. Tob Control. 1998;7:123–128.[Abstract/Free Full Text]

12. Difranza JR, Richards JW, Paulman PM, et al. RJR Nabisco’s cartoon camel promotes Camel cigarettes to children. JAMA. 1991;266:3149–3153.[Abstract]

13. Fischer PM, Schwartz MP, Richards JW, Goldstein AO, Rojas TH. Brand recognition by children aged 3 to 6 years: Mickey Mouse and Old Joe the Camel. JAMA. 1991;266:3145–3148.[Abstract]

14. Pierce JP, Gilpin EA, Burns DM, et al. Does tobacco advertising target young people to start smoking? Evidence from California. JAMA. 1991;266: 3154–3158.[Abstract]

15. Breo DL. Kicking butts—AMA, Joe Camel, and the ‘blackflag’ war on tobacco. JAMA. 1993;270: 1978–1984.[CrossRef][ISI][Medline]

16. Pollay RW, Siddarth S, Siegel M, et al. The last straw? Cigarette advertising and realized market shares among youths and adults, 1979–1993. J Marketing. 1996;60:1–16.

17. Mizerski R. The relationship between cartoon trade character recognition and attitude toward product category in young children. J Marketing. 1995;59: 58–70.

18. Pierce JP, Lee L, Gilpin EA. Smoking initiation by adolescent girls 1944 through 1988: an association with targeted advertising. JAMA. 1994;271:608–611.[Abstract]

19. Pierce JP, Gilpin EA. A historical analysis of tobacco marketing and the uptake of smoking by youth in the United States: 1890–1977. Health Psychol. 1995; 14:500–508.[CrossRef][ISI][Medline]

20. Lovato C, Linn G, Stead LF, Best A. Impact of tobacco advertising and promotions on increasing adolescent smoking behaviors. Available at: http://www.mrw.interscience.wiley.com/cochrane/clsysrev/articles/CD003439/frame.htm. Accessed April 21, 2007.

21. Superior Court of the State of California, County of San Francisco. Settlement and consolidation agreement, Janet C. Mangini vs. R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Co. et al. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/lzq01d00. Accessed June 26, 2007.

22. United States District Court, Eastern District of New York. State of Minnesota and Blue Cross and Blue Shield vs. Philip Morris, Inc. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/wxy85c00. Accessed June 26, 2007.

23. Supreme Court of the United States. Amicus brief, Lorillard Tobacco Co. et al. vs. Thomas F. Reilly, attorney general of Massachusetts. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/knr21e00. Accessed June 26, 2007.

24. National Association of Attorneys Genera1. Tobacco settlement summary, 1998. Available at: http://www.naag.org/glance.htm. Accessed June 26, 2007.

25. Perry CL. The tobacco industry and underage youth smoking—tobacco industry documents from the Minnesota litigation. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1999; 153:935–941.[Abstract/Free Full Text]

26. Cohen JB. Playing to win: marketing and public policy at odds over Joe Camel. J Public Policy Marketing. 2000;18:155–167.

27. Pollay RW. Targeting youth and concerned smokers: evidence from Canadian tobacco industry documents. Tob Control. 2000;9:136–147.[Abstract/Free Full Text]

28. Cummings KM, Morley CP, Horan JK, Steger C, Leavell NR. Marketing to America’s youth: evidence from corporate documents. Tob Control. 2002;11(suppl I): I15–I17.

29. Camel Trial/Continuity Program. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/gex52d00. Accessed April 30, 2007.

30. Gilpin EA, Distefan JD, Lee L, Pierce JP. Population receptivity to tobacco advertising/promotions and exposure to anti-tobacco media: effect of Master Settlement Agreement in California: 1992–2002. Health Promotion Pract. 2004;5(suppl):91S–98S.[CrossRef]

 

REFERENCES

1. Altman, D., Foster, V., Rasenick-Douss, T., Tye, J. Reducing the illegal sales of tobacco to minors. Journal of the American Medical Association 261: 80-83, 1989.

2. Centers for Disease Control. Cigarette advertising— U.S., 1988. MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 39: 261-265, 1990.

3. DiFranza, J.R., Norwood, B.D., Garner, D.W., Tye, J.B. Legislative efforts to protect children from tobacco. Journal of the American Medical Association 257: 3387-3389, 1987.

4. Doctors and Lawyers for a Drug-Free Youth. Cigarettes Readily Sold to Children in 90 U.S. Communities, Tobacco Legislation Recommended. Champaign, IL: Doctors and Lawyers for a Drug-Free Youth, 1991.

5. Fischer, D.A., Magnus, P. “Out of the mouths of babes . . . .” The opinions of 10 and 11 year old children regarding the advertising of cigarettes. Community Health Studies 5: 22-26, 1981. Fischer, P.M., Schwartz, M.P., Richards, J.W., Jr.,

6. Goldstein, A.O., Rojas, T.H. Brand logo recognition by children aged 3 to 6 years. Mickey Mouse and Old Joe the Camel. Journal of the American Medical Association 266: 3145-3148, 1991.

7. Hensley, T. Congress considers eliminating nearly all tobacco advertising. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 81: 128-129, 1989. Johnston, L., O’Malley, P., Bachman, J. “Monitoring the Future Study.” Press release, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, January 31, 1994.

8. Johnston, L.D., O’Malley, P.M., Bachman, J.G. National Trends in Drug Use and Related Factors Among American High School Students and Young Adults, 1975-1990. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration, National Institute on Drug Abuse, 1991.

9. McCan, J. Tobacco logo recognition. Journal of Family Practice 34: 681-684, 1992.

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